The Roaring Twenties refers to the decade of 1920s in the American history. The period is usually considered to have started in 1918, following the end of the WW1, and continued until the stock market crash of 1929. The period of Roaring Twenties was immediately followed by Great Depression.
This period was called the Roaring Twenties because during this period, American nation witnessed an incredibly prosperous period. The American economy grew at a very rapid pace, the total wealth of American nation nearly doubled in a single decade and more and more people were able to buy consumer goods. So a lot of people grew rich during this period and the lifestyle of most of the people generally improved.
In 1918, the World War I came to an end. At the end of the war, USA emerged as one of the most powerful nations in the world. This ushered in an era of great optimism. At the same time, the wealth in America grew and common people were able to purchase more consumer goods. This demand led different industries to produce more and more goods. The increase in demand and supply decreased the overall prices of good and the American industry grew at an exceptional pace. This is also the first time when a lot of people belonging to the middle class were able to afford cars and radios.
During the World War I, American women served in many important positions. So the nation realized that women can serve effectively and perform different jobs as well as men. Once the war was over, women wanted to keep their jobs and to be given equal rights. So the Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment which gave the women the right to vote. This was an important step towards women equality. As women took on more jobs and became more independent, they also contributed to the economy. And by doing different jobs and earning more money, they were able to be a part of the consumer economy.
As the consumer economy took shape, it led to the creation of a common culture all over USA. As people had more money, they bought radios, cars and other mass-produced products. People now went to the movies, listened to the radio and enjoyed many other forms of public entertainment. Journalism also reached an all new level and news would reach from one end to the other end of the nation in no time.
The period of great optimism and prosperity resulted in a lot of speculation in the stock market. Due to the good economic circumstances, people also risked a lot of buying on credit. Finally, the stock market crashed on October 29, 1929. This marked the end of the Roaring Twenties and it was followed by the Great Depression, which was the worst economic crisis in the American history.